Posts tagged ‘Heydar Ghiai’

February 24, 2012

Pioneers of modern architecture in Iran

by mahdimalaguena

The model of The Senate House of Iran, Heydar Ghiaï, 1955, Tehran

Mohsen Foroughi

Mohsen Foroughi, Architect

Born in 1907, as the son of the famous political man, statesman and man of letters Moḥammad Ali Foroughi, Mohsen Foroughi is one of the pioneer of modern architecture in Iran. an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art. He was imprisoned in 1979 after the revolution.

He was sent to study abroad in 1926. In Paris he attended the prestigious Lycée Jeanson-de-Sailly and was successful at the stringent entrance examinations, the concours, for both the École centrale and the École des beaux-arts. He chose École des beaux-arts of Paris (Paris school of fine arts), specializing in architecture. He graduated in 1937, coming first in his class and winning the prize for the best diploma.

He turned back to Iran,  and taught at the various Faculties of the University of  Tehran, including the Faculty of Engineering as well as at the School of Architecture, which was still seperate from campus of University of Tehran.  He was one, along with André Godard, Roland Dubrul, and Maxime Siroux, in establishing the University of Tehran’s Faculty of Fine Arts in 1940 and was one of its initial professors, eventually succeeding Godard as its dean. (Architecte Journal No 1 )

Foroughi collaborated with Godard, Siroux, and Dubrul on the design of the master plan for the University of Tehran and its associated buildings, including the Faculty of Law and Political Science. During a long and productive career stretching over forty years, he worked with a number of well-known Persian architects, including  Ali Sadegh, Kayqhobad Zafar, and later with Haydar Ghiai (Architecte Journal No 5).

Foroughi was the architect of numerous public buildings while associated with the technical office of the National Bank (Bānk-e mellī) and with the Ministries of Finance and Education. Architectural projects designed by him include the Ministry of Finance and a series of buildings for the National Bank including hospitals, bank offices in Tehran’s bazar, and branches in Shiraz, Isfahan, and Tabriz. He also advised and carried out several restoration and building projects for the National Monuments Council of Iran (Anjoman-e âsâr-e melli), including designs for the mausoleums of Sa’di in Shiraz and Baba Taher in Hamadan.

Foroughi established one of the first journals in architecture in Iran, called Architect. 

Sa’di Tomb, Mohsen Foroughi, 1960, Shiraz

Foroughi, collaborated permenently with another architect younger than him : Heydai Ghiaï.

Heydar Gholi Khan Ghiaï-Chamlou

Heydar Ghiaï, Architect

He was born in Tehran in 1922 and died in 1985 in Cap d’Antibes, France. Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts Paris in 1952, was known as a pioneer of modern architecture in Iran. He designed the Senate House, the Royal Tehran Hilton Hotel, several train stations, cinemas, various civic and government buildings and the first series of state of the art hospitals. As a Professor of Architecture at the University of Tehran, he taught several generations of architects.

Heydar Ghiaï designed the Senate House of Iran (The Parliament bulding  of Islamic Republic of Iran from 1979 to 2005)  in 1955. The construction was led by Mr. Rahmat Safai. There are artistic elements such as sculptural columns of the façade and the dome, designed by Ghiaï. The dome of The Senate House was one of the most technically challenging projects in Ghiaï’s entire career.

André Bloc, French artist,  admired the columns of The Senate House, in his book “De la sculpture à l’architecture”. Also, Bloc worked with Foroughi and Ghiaï in some designs and projects later.

Although the Senate’s architect was Ghiaï, but André Bloc in his book, named also Mohsen foroughi as co-architect of the project.

However, Yves Ghiaï, the son of Heydar Ghiaï, says that the main reason of this collaboration between Foroughi and his father, was that Foroughi had good relations with the government, because of his political weight. Specially for the project of The Senate House, Foroughi had just executed the sculptural columns, which were designed and drew by Heydar Ghiaï. That’s the reason that André Bloc mentioned Mohsen Foroughi, due to the sculptural columns of The Senate House.

The Sculptural Culomns, The Senate House of Iran, scanned from André Bloc’s book “De la sculpture à l’architecture”

The Sculptural Culomns, The Senate House of Iran, scanned from André Bloc’s book “De la sculpture à l’architecture”

The Dome of The Senate House of Iran, Heydar Ghiaï, 1955

Ghiaï Crest, The Dome of The Senate House of Iran, Heydar Ghiaï, 1955

Mashad University Hospital, Heydar Ghiaï, 1973, Mashad

Mashad University Hospital, Heydar Ghiaï, 1973, Mashad

Mashad University Hospital, Heydar Ghiaï, 1973, Mashad

Hotel Hilton, Heydar Ghiaï, 1973, Tehran

Lavizan Military Hospital, Heydar Ghiaï, 1971, Tehran

Mohsen Foroughi and Heydar Ghiaï designed The House of Iran in Paris Student Campus in 1960. The construction lasted until 1968 and the whole project was with collaboration of Claude Parent, the French architect, and André Bloc, the French sculpturer and artist. For more information about this, read more HERE.

I’ve heard that the project Maison d’Iran was designed by Heydar Ghiaï, and Mohsen Foroughi (maybe more, Heydar Ghiaï), and Claude Parent collaborated with them, as the role of André Bloc, which was only the sculptural aspect of the spiral stairs of the building. So, I can say, the concept of this project was processed by Heydar Ghiaï.

As follows, there are 2 pages of my analysis of Maison d’Iran for Paris Val De Seine School of Architecture.

Maquette of Iran House (1960-1968) by Heydar Ghiaï, Mohsen Foroughi, André Bloc and Claude Parent.

The House of Iran by Foroughi, Ghiaï, Parent, Bloc

The House of Iran by Foroughi, Ghiaï, Parent, Bloc

References :

Photos : Yves Ghiaï collection

P. Amiet and Ph. Gignoux, “Mohsen Foroughi (1907-1984),” Stud. Ir. 15, 1986, pp. 245-48.

M. Marefat, “Building to Power: Architecture of Tehran 1921-1941,” Ph.D. diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 1988.